The law of search and seizure in California


"Search and seizure"

The Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution states that we have the right to be free from unreasonable "search and seizure" law enforcement authorities. This applies to both federal and state authorities.

Rule the Fourth Amendment against unreasonable search and seizure means that the police can not search you or your property, if you do not meet one of the following:

They got a warrant to search the real from the judge, otherwise the search fall under one of a number of exceptions to the warrant requirement, recognized by federal and California courts.

Exceptions to the warrant requirement:

Exceptions to the rule that the police require a warrant for search and seizure dependent on the type of property that are looking for.

Mobile phones

There are special rules for when police can conduct a search, "smart phones" and other electronic devices without the authorization of the warrant.

For example, exceptions that apply to police searches in the mobile phones are different from those that apply to police searches of vehicles.

But, in general, exceptions to the warrant requirement to searches and seizures are for:

The search / seizure, made with someone's voluntary consent;

The search / seizure that occur to a lawful arrest, the police is looking for any weapons that could be used against them, or criminal evidence, which might otherwise be destroyed;

inspection check, for example, at international borders;

Searches of vehicles, when there is "probable cause" in the opinion of the police that the vehicle contains evidence of the crime (this is known as "the vehicle an exception" on demand warrants);

The search apparently inkryminatsyynyh items that are in "normal vision" and the law enforcement bodies carry out otherwise lawful search warrant;

The search / seizure in emergency situations, which are necessary to prevent injury or suras & # 39; oznay damage to property or to search for a suspect who escapes;

"Stop and fury" of a suspect in a criminal case (that is, a search of his upper garment) until he / it temporarily contain (it is sometimes called "Terry stop") to look for a weapon that could be used against the officer; and

Searches in situations where there is no reasonable expectation of particular people.

What happens if I become a victim of an unlawful search and seizure?

If you are the victim of an illegal search and seizure by the police, then you and your California criminal lawyer protection can apply to the court to exclude this evidence in your case. This is what is known as the "exclusionary rule".

This usually occurs through the movement of the PC that provides the action of PC 1538.5 to suppress evidence, that & # 39 is an important kind of advanced movement in California.

To help you better understand where the police can legally conduct a search in the car or truck in California, our lawyers on the criminal protection of California will be treated to the following:

1. The laws of California, search and seizure and the "reasonable expectation of particular"

2. California warrant for search

3. Exemptions from the requirement of a warrant for search and seizure

3.1. Exceptions to search for home / residence

3.2. Exceptions when searching cars

3.3. Exceptions for mobile phones and computers Search

3.4. Exception "normal view"

4. "Exclusion rules" and illegal search / seizure

4.1. "The fruit of the poisonous tree"

1. The laws of California, search and seizure and the "reasonable expectation of particular"

Laws on search and arrest in California originate from:

The Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution and Article I of the California Constitution section.

These constitutional section provides that all citizens have the right to be free from "unreasonable searches and seizures."

search car

The Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution protects you from unreasonable searches and seizures.

But as a rule, you are only protected from unreasonable search and seizure of the property in which you have a "reasonable" expectation particular.

Here are a few examples of places / property in which you have a legitimate expectation of privacy that protects you against searches and seizures:

Your home,
Your mobile phone, computer and other electronic storage devices,
Tent or tarp,
Hotel room and
Personal property, which they bring to the public school students.

They have a search warrant or
One of the exceptions to the warrant requirement.

2. California warrant for search

Many searches / seizures in California with a & # 39 are constitutional because it is handled with the current search warrant.

A search warrant must be signed by a judge.

A search warrant must be allowed to state or federal judge. Warrant entitles the police to search and / or remove items that are either
It may be an indication that a crime has been committed in California, or
It may be an indication that a particular person has committed a crime.

To be true, a search warrant must be based on "probable cause" and specifically describes both
area you want to search for, and
property or thing are looking for.

Due to the fact that he can search warrant to be invalid or faulty, include:

police officer intentionally misleading the judge about the facts that justify the warrant (Form violations of police regulations, which occurs all too often);

The warrant was not specific enough in relation to the area you need to look for any type of evidence that must be sought; and / or

The judge who issued the warrant, was biased.

3. Exemptions from the requirement of a warrant for search and seizure

Some searches or seizures places / property in which you have a legitimate expectation of privacy act, even if they were made without a warrant, as long as they fall within one of a long list of well-recognized "exceptions" on demand warrants. .

The US Supreme Court has put forward a number of exceptions from the requirement of a warrant for search and seizure.

3.1. Exceptions to search for home / residence

The police can enter and conduct a search in your house, apartment, trailer, etc. without pre & # 39; appearance of order when used one of the following circumstances:

You (or anyone else who has authority over the premises) have agreed to search for your home;

There is imminent danger to life or a threat sur & # 39; oznay damage to property; or
The search was conducted in connection with a lawful arrest – and is done either to arrest security enforcement officers or to preserve evidence of the crime of arrest, which would otherwise be destroyed.

3.2. Search for car Exceptions

Under certain circumstances, the police may conduct a search in your car without a warrant.

The police are conducting searches on cars without a warrant, if satisfied that any of the following:

You (or anyone else with the authority to do so) agreed to search for your car;

The police have "probable cause" considers that the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime;

The police lawfully arrested a passenger car – either the detainee is at a distance from the vehicle interior, or is reasonable to assume that the vehicle contains evidence of a crime for which arrested;

Police temporarily delays the passenger car through a stop Terry and reasonably believes that he / it can be dangerous and have access to weapons, which is stored in the car; or

The car has been lawfully detained by law enforcement agencies (as may happen if you make a car the code 14601 for the driving conditions on the permit), and they spend the "inventory search".

As soon as the police catch up with them, they conduct a search of the car and found marijuana hidden under the seat.

Marijuana can be used as evidence against Matilda and Nicole, but the police did not have a search warrant in the car. Their suspicious behavior led police to a high speed chase when they came – established probable cause to search his car.

3.3. Exceptions for mobile phones and computers Search

The search for a computer & # 39; yuterav / electronic devices without the guarantee shall be settled only in a few specific circumstances.

The police can conduct a search on your mobile phone or conduct a search of your computer or hard drive, a tablet computer or other electronic device – without the approval of the order in the following circumstances:

If you or anyone else with the authority by phone / computer / electronic device, consents to a search / seizure;

In an emergency, when the police can show the urgent need for a device looking to pursue outgoing suspect or assist someone who suras & # 39; ozna injured or threatened with imminent injury; or

When transporting the device across the international border (including at airports).

And finally, if, prior to June 25, 2014 California police conducted a search on your mobile phone without a warrant, as long as you are under the legal custody, the prosecutor's office, probably can use this evidence against you.

This is because before that date the law in California was such that under these circumstances free cell phone lookup

In June 2014 in California The search incident uninterrupted mobile services were held.

3.4. Exception "normal view"

Exception "normal looking" – is another important exception to the rules of the search warrant and seizure in California.

In principle, an exception to the usual form says that, when the police searches of the property legally (with a warrant or for a warrant exceptions), they can also look for any items that are in the "normal view", as long as they conduct search and obviously, is charged with.

4. "Exclusion rules" and illegal search / seizure

If you have been the victim of unlawful search and seizure, you have the right to have any evidence that the police had received as a result of the search or seizure "suppressed". This means that the evidence can not be used against you in court on a criminal jury.

You and your California criminal lawyer can protect the suppression of evidence obtained as a result of illegal police search.

This is what the law of California is known as the "exclusionary rule".

Your lawyer can challenge the criminal liability of any evidence of a false search / seizure by an application of the Penal Code 1538.5 to suppress evidence before trial.

If the application is granted – and the evidence from the & # 39 are crucial to the prosecution case against you – you may be able to reduce the charges against you or even reject it.

4.1. "The fruit of the poisonous tree"

"Exclusion rule" applies not only to the evidence found during an illegal search, but on the evidence that the police found an indirect result of the illegal peratrusu.58

This is what is known as the doctrine of the "fruit of the poisonous tree."

"Poisonous Tree" – an illegal search or seizure, and "fruit" – is any evidence that the police can not identify as an indirect result of an illegal search or seizure.


Top California


California, located on the west coast, with the & # 39 is one of the largest states in America. It is often called the Golden State because of the sun out & # 39; I and the discovery of gold at the phases of development of the state. California – a highly industrialized country and has a large number of important business issues and companies operating within the state in different cities such as Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Francisco and many others. California – an extremely popular state in terms of tourism, business and trade. Basic requirements for this popularity – this hotel, villas, taverns and resorts. California offers plenty of comfortable, luxurious and star hotels.

California – is a rich and complex state, which offers a variety of attractions such as Hollywood and Disneyland. Most of the hotels in California offers a wide range of facilities and services for relaxation and recreation. Fitness centers, casinos, spas, swimming pools, game room and theater – some of the facilities that are available in most hotels in California. Rooms at the hotel are very comfortable and offer entertainment channels, centralized air-conditioning, Internet access and a refrigerator.

Many of the best hotels in California provide people with packages that include all the inclusive, to improve their favor. These types of packages attract visitors book at the same hotel next visit, providing a guaranteed hotel for business. Usually packages selection is made taking into account factors such as the mode of transportation, accommodations, amenities and budget visitors. Packages "all inclusive" is not available throughout the year and are offered at certain times of the year only if the hotel management finds it necessary to add them. If visitors plan to choose the hotel in California is always advised to go online and go through all of the & # 39; objects that are available for each hotel, and then choose the most suitable.

Many accessible sites enable customers to compare different hotel prices and convenience. Sites also inform customers about the various discount schemes available. Tourists also have the opportunity to register in these hotels through the Internet.


How to beat a DUI in California


If you are arrested for driving under the influence of the state of California, you need to know a lot of information, if you're going to win their business. One of the first things you need to know is that you should hire a lawyer who specializes in defending Dui, so you have the advantage of a qualified lawyer on your team. The presence of a man who knows how to do business with the JUI, can make all the difference between a successful defense against the charges and the need to spend time in prison or pay expensive fines and penalties. Understanding California's Law of JUI – is an important first step in avoiding the JUI in the first place, so you do not need a lawyer Dui. If you are not able to avoid charges of DUI, the next step is nanyatstso DUI lawyer who has experience with DUI defense.

How to win a DUI in California – California DUI law

JUI basic law of California is that you can not drive a car, if you are under the influence of alcohol or drugs. According to this law of the JUI, you can be charged with a criminal offense and can be influenced. California is also considered a misdemeanor driving with a blood alcohol level above 0.08%, that & # 39 is the legal BAC restriction in the state. If you stop on suspicion of DUI, you will almost always before the & # 39; the revealed allegations of abuse BOTH legislation. If you are driving a tractor trailer or commercial vehicle, the BAC limit is 0.04%, which means that control of the car after drinking one or two drinks can be considered a crime. All this can be very serious & # 39; oznay, so you should contact a lawyer to learn how to win DUI in California.

Dui How to win in California – a blood alcohol level

The concentration of alcohol in the blood – is exactly what is described by the term. BAC – is the amount of alcohol that is concentrated in the blood. If you have drawn or stopped at a checkpoint, you may be asked to hand over to a chemical test. Three types of tests are used to determine the level of alcohol concentration in the blood, if you are arrested. The first – a blood test, where a sample of your blood is analyzed to determine the content of alcohol. The second – a breath test. If you performed a breath test, you breathe in a device that measures the breath alcohol concentration. If none of these tests are not available, that usually does not happen, we can take a piss. Refusal to surrender chemical tests can lead to the suspension of the license for one year, even if you do not actually have been violated or exceeded the legal limit of BAC.

How to win in California Dui – criminal penalties

Penalties for condemnation JUI California start with the first of the offense and increase the accumulation of additional sentences. For a first offense you can be sentenced from 3 to 5 years probation, fines and court fees, the 6-month license suspension, learning JUI and mandatory penalties in the amount of 48 hours in prison. Second offense can lead to a penalty of 3 to 5 years of the trial period of 18 months the suspension of driver license, education JUI, establishing ignition interlock devices and mandatory sentence in prison 96 hours. The third offense is a & # 39 is a more serious & # 39; oznym may result in four months to one year of imprisonment, from 3 to 5 years probation, a 3-year license suspension, fines and court costs, as well as education JUI. If the California attorney Protection Service into your defensive team can help minimize these penalties if he or she will speak on your behalf prior to sentencing.

How to beat a DUI in California – Choosing a lawyer

Choosing a lawyer – one of the most important steps that you will do if you are arrested for driving under the influence in California. Since this is a criminal offense, you need a person with high qualifications and has a lot of experience, so you have the best chance to win your case. Most DUI lawyers offer a free initial consultation so that you can learn that will work with them before you commit to them. Once you have chosen a lawyer, you will need to pay utrymalnuyu fee to a lawyer could do the work with you. Your lawyer will help you prepare your case and represent you in any legal proceedings. This assistance is valuable, so make sure you hired a lawyer as soon as possible after arrest.


JUI in California


There is not as open and closed case of the California DUI … just do not. Before the charge can & # 39; will reveal to you the charge of the management of BAC car. 20%, causing the accident, and to be in a state of alcoholic Up & # 39; yanennya that you barely gave way, not to mention the car.

But even if we assume that these facts with the & # 39; are real … which they are not usually a & # 39 … are still a number of remedies JUI, which can lead to a reduction or even rejection charges JUI. That is why it is always important to consult with an experienced defender JUI in California, before deciding on the plea.

20 ways to beat the charges in the JUI in California

1. California DUI breath design undergoes a large number of errors

California DUI breathing tests are subject to a wide range of errors. This includes (but is not limited to)

instrument malfunction,

mistreatment by the police,

your physiological conditions (eg, GERD, or your diet, they both discussed below), and even

is environmental factors (e.g., radio frequency interference, which is also described below).

While DUI breath test with & # 39 is the most common way to measure the BAC, it is not always true. This is due to the fact that the test breath for the soul does not directly measures the amount of alcohol in the blood. It measures the amount of alcohol that is in your breath, and then converts this number to determine the amount of alcohol in your blood. As a result, the breath test DUI exposed to various external influences that can create erroneously high readings BAC.

2. Alcohol in the mouth may change the accuracy of your breath test in California

DUI breath test devices designed to capture the breath sample with your deep lung tissue (otherwise known as "alveolar air"). If the residual alcohol is retained in the mouth … or because

dental work got in the mouth of a small amount of alcohol,

you adlapali or spewed out of himself, or

you are suffering from GERD, acid reflux or heartburn (discussed below) …

breath test tool records the "alcohol in the mouth", and not just avealyarnae air. As a result of the alcohol in the mouth can cause falsely high BAC level in the California DUI respiratory tests.

3. Medical conditions such as GERD, acid reflux and / or heartburn, can infect respiratory JUI test results.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (more often called "GERD"), acid reflux and heartburn – all recognized medical conditions that make possible the situation with alcohol in the mouth. This is because these conditions create a stream of acid that comes from the stomach to the mouth.

When this occurs immediately prior to breath test DUI, alcohol, which moves from the stomach to the lips, masks deep lung air, which is designed to measure the respiratory tool. As a result of GERD, acid reflux and / or heartburn may cause falsely high BAC levels in California breathing test DUI.

4. A diet low in carbohydrate content and high protein content Atkins style, such as diabetes or hypoglycemia, can cause respiratory test DUI and lead to false high BAC

These terms and conditions, such as diet and the Atkins-style medical conditions such as diabetes and hypoglycemia, in fact capable of independently producing isopropyl alcohol. This is because the organs, deprived of carbohydrates are converted into stored fat for energy. This process produces ketones. Ketones excreted through respiration and urine, are converted into isopropyl alcohol.

… The problem with regard to the testing of breathing the soul … is that most Californian of tools for DUI breath not a & # 39 are so difficult to distinguish this samapraduktsyyny isopropyl alcohol to ethanol (a type of alcohol that we & n # 39; em). As a result of the diet in the style of Atkins or diabetes or hypoglycemia can deceive JUI breath testing tool for a falsely high BAC. Similarly, diabetes may deceive breathing means and it must be considered as a defense of the JUI.

5. "The growth of alcohol in the blood" may mean that your BAC was higher if you take the test than if you actually went

Alcohol requires a certain amount of time (usually from 50 minutes to three hours) for the absorption in a system. For example, if you have only recently started to drink alcohol … and shortly afterwards were investigated indicators JUI … your spirits may not peaked. In this case, your blood alcohol level is still rising, which may cause falsely high BAC result of a DUI.

This is because your BAC at the time of donating blood or breath does not matter … actually what your BAC is in the process of governance. Just because you have a BAC, which is above the legal limit, if you padvyargaetsesya chemical test DUI, does not mean that it was your BAC while driving … especially if you are "on the rise".

Prosecutors want to assume that each person exceeds the peak uptake phase when the chemical is subject to verification in California. We know, however, that this is not always the case, and that the increase in blood alcohol with & # 39 is a very legitimate protection JUI. This "protection" protection extends to a blood test DUI, and check the respiratory breathing.

6. California DUI blood test does not necessarily offer an accurate reading

There are many factors that can ruin the results of your blood test results DUI:

Fermentation blood

improper storage of your blood sample and

blood poisoning

only a few reasons why the blood test results may be inaccurate. That's why we say that California blood test DUI, of course, is not reliable.

Depending on the circumstances related to the collection and storage of your analysis DUI blood, the defense lawyer for the protection of business in California can be excluded from the evidence of BAC. If your BAC stopped, your account code according 23152b vehicle for a vehicle control BAC at least 0.08% must be removed.

7. Violations of the header 17 of the California Code of Regulations could jeopardize the results of the BAC

The header 17 of the California Code of Regulations define the requirements for the collection, storage and analysis of chemical test Duy. These rules are very specific, and any violation of Title 17, California could jeopardize the results of BUI DUI.

This means that if, for example,

it is not prepared by a technician who takes a sample of your blood DUI

if the breath testing instrument DUI, you are using has not been calibrated in accordance with the code,

Your BAC can be excluded from the evidence … or, at least, its accuracy will be called into question.

8. If the officer has not been possible reasons to stop, detain or arrest you for the JUI, the evidence – and the case – can be thrown out of court

Before the police can

Stop the car,

detain you to investigate Dui, or

arrest you for California JUI,

they must have a reasonable suspicion or reasonable belief that you are engaged in criminal activity. This is a reasonable belief – is the legal standard, known as the probable cause.

If the officer is no necessary reason needed before any of these steps, all evidence obtained as a result of this illegal procedure will be terminated. If the judge suppressed the evidence, which means that the prosecution can not use them against you. As a result of evidence obtained without probable reasons generally lead to a decrease or deflection of charges in PSU, California.

9. The officer did not inform you about your rights at Miranda

Despite the common misperception, California arrest JUI is not always required. However, they are required if (1) you are under arrest, and (2) the investigating officer conducting the interrogation. "Interrogation of detention" occurs when an employee asks you questions aimed at soliciting inkryminalnyh said after you were arrested.

If these conditions are met, the officer must inform you of your Miranda rights or risk to any subsequent application have been excluded from evidence. Depending on the significance of these statements, their exclusion may reduce or reject the accusations of ISPs.

10. There is an innocent explanation of the physical signs and symptoms of dui

Most likely, the officer will claim that you are exposed

red / watery eyes,

flushed face,

blurred speech,

unstable walking and

on your breathing with the & # 39; was the odor of an alcoholic beverage.

Regardless of whether this description is true, fact is that none of these signs or symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have a DUI.

And even if you've been drinking, these features do not in themselves indicate that you are under the influence of alcohol and / or drugs. Furthermore, innocent explanations such as




physical trauma,

disease …

It can be explained by the physical signs and symptoms that are commonly associated with the JUI.

11. California field sobriety test ( "FSTs") is not a & # 39 are accurate indicators of alcohol and / or drug violation

Even the most reliable Californian sobriety test is not of & # 39 are accurate indicators of alcohol and / or drug violations. Three tests, which have real data proving their reliability, only between 65-77% accurate in identifying violations … and that's only if they are entered accurately and assessed (which rarely happens).

And just as innocent explanation that can explain the physical signs of violations, these same explanations may explain poor performance in the FSTS. In addition, factors such as

officer intimidation,

poor conditions out & # 39; I,

poor lighting,

uneven surface conditions and

uncomfortable shoes, such as boots, dress shoes or high heels

which have nothing to do with alcohol and / or drug substances, can lead to the fact that a person can "fail" sobriety tests in the field.

12. DUI – is not the only explanation for bad driving

While the police like to think that all the bad drivers should be JUI, we know that it is not.

Weaving, speeding, and even mismanagement often & # 39 are the result of carelessness or distraction. Maybe you ate, trying to play a CD, or tried to take something that has fallen or been distracted by your passengers.

The bottom line is that DUI is not the only explanation for poor management. The reality is that people show sober moments a bad drive as well as the drivers with disabilities.

13. Just because you have a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds the legal limit, does not mean that you necessarily have DUI

At a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is influenced by many different factors, not only the actual amount of alcohol in the body. These factors include (but are not limited to):

Errors in California equipment for chemical testing DUI,

Error in obtaining a blood sample, or respiration (if necessary) the urine sample,

your medical conditions and

If you have finished drinking alcohol.

Each of these factors can independently affect the accuracy of your results BAC, so do not let you cheat … the number of illegal BAC does not necessarily mean that you are guilty of DUI.

14. In California, DUI chemical tests neodymium there & # 39; emnyya degree of error

Even assuming that all test conditions are ideal … testing equipment was properly maintained and calibrated, and there is no physiological conditions that could adversely affect the test … there is still a natural error rate with a California DUI test chemical . .

Experts agree that test chemical California DUI is +/- error between 0.005-0.02%. As a result, the California JUI protector may challenge BAC results that are within 0.08-0.10%, since they may be below the minimum 0.08%, the required vehicle 23152b Code for running the vehicle with the BAC at least 0, 08%.

15. Checkpoints of sobriety California JUI must meet certain legal requirements

If you are arrested at the checkpoint Dui, has investigated various issues that will be investigated by the California criminal defense counsel. The sobriety checkpoints California duyki must follow very strict legal requirements … if they do not take place, you can be falsely arrested for the JUI.

These legal requirements relate to the operation of paragraph DUI skip. A few examples include (but are not limited to):

with supervisory authorities who organize and monitor the crossing point,

making sure that the field staff perform a predetermined formula to stop the car, and

Public advertising roadblock DUI.

If / when these demands are not met, the JUI-back Californian can effectively challenge the arrest and subsequent prosecution.

16. A radio frequency interference (RFI) can contribute to false high result BAC

Radio frequency interference ( "RFI") can lead to the delivery of chemical blood or breath in California DUI, to cause erroneously high BAC. This is because almost all electronic devices … such as those used to analyze blood samples and a DUI breath …, susceptible to RFI or EFI (electromagnetic interference).

On the electronic components of these instruments can affect radio waves coming. Radio transmission from

patrol cars,

automatic devices for unlocking doors found in laboratories crimes

cell phones,


fluorescent lighting, etc. …

are just a few examples of types of equipment which are able to interfere with the result of the JUI blood and breath.

17. If you do not show signs of mental disorder, the more likely you are not DUI

There are two types of violations in relation to alcohol and / or drugs: the mental and physical disorders. Most of the violations alleged by the employees in the course of the investigation in California in connection with the JUI with the & # 39 is physical. Officers regularly indicate that those arrested for drunk driving show

unstable walking,

poor coordination,

red / watery eyes and

blurred speech.

However, experts agree that alcohol and / or drug addiction always cause a violation of psychological development. This means that if the officer indicates that you have manifested physical, but not mental impairment, your alleged violations were related to alcohol and / or drugs. As a result, if you do not show signs of mental disorder, you probably were not Dui.

18. Your BAC DUI does not reflect your level violations

If there is a significant discrepancy, something is wrong between BAC and your expected level of violations. This may be the case if you (1) allegedly not impaired, or (2) have found even a small offense, but your BAC was high … even two or three times the legal limit.

If there is such a type of situation (sometimes called case "off"), and your BAC DUI does not accurately reflect your intended level of disturbance, proof can not be trusted … something just does not add up.

19. You did not go,

The police is not enough to prove that you are under the influence of … crime is driven under the influence. If, for example,

you were involved in the accident, and no one saw you drive a car, or

when police found you when you were in your parked car,

For the charges will be more difficult to prove one of the key elements of the remote control: what you were driving. If the DA You can not prove that you are driving, you can not be convicted California JUI. JUI protection "out of control" should be taken into account at any time, when the police do not really see how you are driving. And finally …

20. Even if you were DUI, violation of police regulations may exempt you from accusations of DUI

If you can demonstrate a violation of police rules, it is possible that your allegations of JUI can be removed … even if you really were guilty of JUI. This is because it is necessary to comply with proper police procedure. for example,

Police Reports JUI must be accurate,

Order 17 procedures should be performed and

Court testimony must be true.

If these (or any other) conditions are deliberately manipulated the evidence which has been illegally mined or manufactured, they will be suppressed. Depending on how much it will affect the case to the prosecutor, he / she may decide to reduce or even deny your accusations.


Combating the California Gold Rush


While tales of fabulous wealth – is a legend, but the pioneer miners of California faced huge obstacles, and most of them barely had enough to eat, not to mention the razbagatsenne. Weather & # 39; e at a certain time, it was a pleasant and favorable to mining and exploration, but at other times it was bitter and nepagadliva. To eat, they had to work in the rain and cold. Winter 1852-53's, perhaps, was the most violent in the history of California. A long spell of rain, which leads to high water in rivers and streams, completely prevented the transportation of supplies from the cities, and a lot of things like, although actual cases of starvation there. Many men live for weeks on a black barley. Beans, even without the ham, to fill them, in some cases, was the only food that is available to miners for weeks. In one camp the pork rind borrowed from one house to another to lubricate the pan for cans (pancakes). The narrative of the personal experience of one miner, who lived on the south branch of Dry Creek, Amador County, in 1852, will give an idea of ​​this year's troubles:

"It rained for about six weeks, and our application was four feet under water for months. There were no swallowing, which would have to pay, and we waited until the rain stopped, until not give any description. Gone are the money, and dust. Something had to be done, even if the rain went into the stream. We had four one Yank, two young married from Illinois, and the man who served in the United States Army in seminolskay war, as well as a volunteer in the Mexican war. We took the pickaxe , shovels and a rolling pin and moved towards Indian sip. passing a short distance away, one of the miners of our group, who came from Illinois, thought of his young wife, and domestic happiness compared with the country, and, overcome by his feelings, crashed into the confused desperation and started to run away into the cabin, where he was found the night which hovers over the cold ashes of the fire, the fire is completely extinguish the Head of the flood of tears.

At the head of the Indian Bay found some fee. We came to work, and about four hours, we, is an admixture grukavyh listening, swinging and breading had an ounce of gold dust. With that, I began to Fideltavne buy dinner for the boys. "

Now at a price of around $ 1,000 per ounce, an ounce of gold dust in 2009, it will be bought by many months of basic food for men, but in those days gold was only $ 20 per ounce. With superior price of food in 1852 (gold at a hundred dollars a barrel, and the meat and seventy-five cents per pound) it was not so much. Our miner continued the tale:

"After standing and wondering, I noticed what I thought, that the rain will soon meet to stocks fell, believed that I would buy, but at night a small amount, etc. Mr. Wingo, gentleman merchant, did I think I do not notice. my embarrassment, but politely sold me a small smear of flour and a piece of meat that went down to the corner of the bag out of sight. I ran to the salon quickly darkness falls and the rain is still falling.

Cries were now almost deeply at the waist, but I went through safely all of them, until he came to Dry Creek. The logs, after which I moved to the morning was not, and the water flowing over the banks. Two or three hundred yards was the cabin, and I knew that a bright light that shines through the door windows, has created a large fire to cook our dinner with our revenue performance and drying. our clothes are soaked with rain twelve hours. It was convened by the Council of hostilities, and was in demand all available information about roads, bridges and ferries. Creek was nowhere to hem; This offer has been canceled without delay. One witness, a member of the Council, recalled that as seen through tree screaming a mile away or a couple of days, but he could not vouch for the fact that it is there. On the & # 39; being the only information available, the commander ordered the change to a possible bridge base. Down by the creek, in the dark, over the rocks and bushes, stumbling and falling, and after hours of hard work bridge was found. It was a cedar tree, an example of which lay at the root, big top, which reached the opposite shore, and the middle droops down so that the water flowed, perhaps two feet in the trunk depth, and every moment threatened to sweep the wood from the dock; in fact, standing on its upper end, I felt like he staggers to the movement of water. But in the submerged part of the limb were that stood out of the flow and order, which operated across the bridge, was enacted, I caution that said: "My boy, if you peretryasesh overboard guys go without dinner." The opposite bank was safe, feeling the road and holding the limb; and, an hour later, the bread and roast pork, and the light which boomed, led us in a comfortable condition and gave us a laugh at all our troubles. "

Such were the struggles and the main difficulties of life in the gold camps of California in the early days.


California hotel for sale and where to buy them


Solar California is known for its beautiful beaches, exciting cities and rich clients. If you want to go where the money is, you go to California. One of the largest companies that make money – it's the hotel business. If you are interested in selling hotels in California, you are already beginning to a great start in the business world.

How you can find hotels in California for sale? First, check online real estate listings and sales that are going on. Even if you do not buy any of the American hotels on offer, which you will find on the Internet, it will give you an excellent idea of ​​how many there are hotels in California. You see what is available and at what price. Shopping online for hotels online is quick and simple, and you can learn a lot of things very quickly. The more you learn, the better the chances of success in the hotel in the future. Internet search engines are very helpful, and you can quickly make your job. Start here, learn quickly, and then you can plan your next step.

If you look online, you can find excellent hotels, but do not stop there. You also want to follow the Californian newspaper that lists the hotels for sale in California. Some of these lists will never make it on the Internet, so you can not use only one search form. To find the perfect place, you need to look elsewhere.

California hotel sold the owner can offer you a better purchase price than California hotel for sale through estate agents. There are fees associated with working with a real estate professional, but they can help you do your job a lot easier. You can contact the estate office to find some more hotels for sale in California. Since the hotel has such a large, desirable properties, most of them will be carried out with the help of realtors, so you can not leave the property outside the offices of Hotels.

Once you have made the purchase, you will learn much more about the cost, content and availability of hotels in California for sale. Now all you have to do is wait and keep watching the market until that perfect property will not be seized. You can not find the right hotel in California for sale, if you begin to search, but keep your eyes open. Properties become available all the time, and sometimes all you need to do is continue to wait and watch for the opportunity that you are looking for. You should regularly check the lists and be ready to make your move. The more you know about the sale of hotels in California, the higher the chances of long-term success.


The cost of an insignificant degree at California State University just expensive


During the years of Obama's inflation has been quite different, but you do not know what to look at the increase in the college / university at the national level, especially in California. Students in high school say that the college is obliged to have a fruitful life and to live in the elusive middle class, and they are ordered to go into debt to get that degree (more akin to economic enslavement) without the guarantee. Most of the teachers and college administrators are 2%, 1%, but significantly ahead of what their students need to wait to get there. Let's talk, because the academic bubble is still built up and is about to emerge – all gone out of hand.

Los Angeles (Eyewitness News 7) March 22, 2017 with the & # 39; was rather alarming segment partner ABC News ( "Eyewitness News 7"): March 22, 2017 CSU trustees vote for higher education by 5%.

Firstly, I would like to point out that education in the university University of California improved, thereby worsening it. Students who have suffered disciplinary valued less than the market, as employers realize that their education is not so good, and that these degrees do not portend that the students will be productive employees and did not even have a clue that they are doing.

Most teachers, especially Professor Emeritus, do not spread much in the classroom as they spend a lot of time on a volunteer and now lectures. The increase in expenses associated with the University of hereditary costs (pensions) and an increase in medical Cadillac Style health programs for faculty and staff. Although their pension fund is not as bad as the University of California, who does not get under-funding, it is not pub & # 39; e any records – recently the Trump Bump stock market saved my ass, if you & # 39; I d like to know the real skinny on this.

It's time to face the facts – the CSU system (California State University) is violated, academic science is divided close to the damned university, which give a degree in gender studies, stability, ethnic equality, LBGT studies – those kids are not worth going to work to ever pay off these student loans – the scientific community working on drugs by any rational standard, which can be observed – insignificant – absolutely void survivors from federal research grants and padatkaplatselshch ykav and extortion, subsidies and socialist agenda. Some of our analysis centers on the Internet, say right, for example; "To hell with it all, now it's just BS", and I believe that those members of the analytical center are absolutely groundless.

Why 5% increase in tuition fees when enrolling at all times? Why the increase in tuition fees without increasing benefits? Diploma is not more expensive than last year, and now they cost less. California State University system goes out of control, as well as the University of California, and academia across the country with a debt of student loans in the range of $ 1.4 trillion, 45% of these loans have never paid a single payment or up to 90 days overdue. Academic Industrial Complex – a giant bubble that will burst, and that makes the CSU system? Raise tuition? Ah, well, just a lot of help … NO!


California wine region


Although there are vineyards in almost every US state, California is vastly superior to all others, and its production can even be classified on a global scale. In fact, California took 4 for the production of wine in the world with a total of & # 39; production capacity of 2 billion liters a year, after Italy, France and Spain. He also is one of the most diverse wine regions in the world due to its ability to produce almost 100 individual high-quality grapes. Some of the most popular wines:

* Merlot

* Pinot Noir

* Cabernet Sauvignon

* Shiraz

* Zinfandel

* Chardonnay

* Sauvignon Blanc

The state has about 4,500 wine-growers of grapes; evidence of the size and importance of the wine industry in California. In 2006, the California wine industry has had economic impact on its own staff by 51.8 billion dollars and the impact on the 125.3 billion dollars for the whole United States. The wine industry in California is easy with & # 39 is the most profitable of any other area in the United States states, and its wine is among the highest worldwide.

Due to the different growing conditions in California shares the wine area in the five main regions: North Coast, peradgor & # 39; and the Sierras, Central Coast, Central Valley and Southern California. Each of these regions can be further subdivided into padregiony called appeals (which often are the & # 39 counties), which many people are not even familiar with wine, easy to recognize by name, such as Napa, Sonoma and San Valley Joaquin. If the wine label contains a certain name, this means that at least 75 percent of the grapes used in this wine grown in this particular region. wine labels can also contain two or three treatments for the classification of different grapes used in wine, as if precisely marked percent.

Climate range in California Var & # 39; iruetstsa depending from region to region, to provide superior products of various types of well-grown grapes, which leads to different grades. Elements out & # 39; I like the cool sea breeze that cools the vineyards of Sonoma County, are extremely important in vyrastayuchyh needs of growing grapes.

The most important varieties that are produced in the wine-growing region of California, with a & # 39 are Chardonnay and Cabernet, although many other varieties of the region massively popular with pinot noir so. California wine region has a reputation for producing high quality wine for fun in a relaxed atmosphere among friends, just as it would be the biggest supporters.


Merlot – it is a popular grape red wine, red wine, which is believed to have occurred because of Cabernet-Franc and was first recorded in Italy in 1832. It is used for blending purposes, inspired wine region of Bordeaux, France, as well as for direct production of high-quality wines. In particular, in the 1990s, Merlot has experienced great growth in popularity and has become a new trendy wine, but its popularity was unchanged. In 2003, California had more than 50 000 hectares devoted only grapes Merlot.

Some top quality Merlot come from Bordeaux, France, Napa Valley, Sonoma, Chile and Washington. These areas have raised the historical land of Merlot for better soil, which led to the fact that Merlot is less suitable for mixing and perfect for their own kind. Merlot taste depends on the type of soil on which it was grown. For example, Merlot with a flat and clay soil leads to a more smooth and velvet of wine. Merlot is grown in more mountainous regions it tends more like a Cabernet Sauvignon.

Many Merlot has a taste reminiscent of Cabernet Sauvignon, but they have less acidity due to the thin skin of the grapes and the earlier ripening. It also often has a variety of flavors such as currant, plum, black cherry, caramel, cloves, bay leaf, pepper, olive and purple. It is not enough to tannins, and many wine lovers believe that it is smooth and easy to drink red variety.

When mixing Merlot it is often combined with Cabernet Sauvignon to balance the strength and taste the flavors of each type, with the result that combines the best of both worlds. Another benefit to the mixture of Merlot and Merlot / Cabernet Sauvignon is that the price is often much less than the overall grade Cabera Sauvignon.

While many wine lovers believe that red wine can only be made at room temperature, in fact, Merlot should be served a few degrees below room temperature, as sometimes it can be less pleasant taste about 74 degrees Fahrenheit. Cooling it to a couple of minutes ensures that the wine is a little cooler and ensure the best flavors.

As Merlot is not as rich as some other varieties of red wine, it is still quite flexible in its light combinations with plenty of popular dining options. Because this wine is medium build, it combines well with beef, meat, sausages and hearty dish of pasta.

Pinot Noir

With the recent movie Sideway, recently Pinot Noir was widespread among the general population, n & # 39; e wine, and greatly multiplied its popularity. It originated in the Burgundy wine region of France, but now spread around the world in a much different wine regions, which cover almost all wine-growing region. Despite his worldwide popularity, Pinot Noir is one of the most difficult grapes for efficient cultivation because it brittle and difficult to control in terms of preventing mutations grapes or any other unwanted vibrations that lead to undesirable changes in flavor or other characteristics. in grapes.

Pinot Noir reaches its peak in the development of taste when grown in cooler wine regions and never remembers the level of precision and excellence in the development, which he achieved in his home in the Burgundy wine region. However, all Pinot Noir wines are usually light red shade that Var & # 39; iruetstsa from cherries to plums. They also have a fragrant aroma, which encompasses notes of cherry, violets, berries and spices. Like most other wines, wine Pinot Noir develops greater complexity of flavors in aging. The aging process can contribute to the aroma, reminiscent of the skin and mushrooms to the taste of wine sizes.

Pinot Noir wines are usually considered mild and medium build, because they are quite fragile varietal, which often also include fine silky tannins.

Grapes Pinot Noir, although it is very difficult to effectively grow, and it becomes difficult to maintain consistency in the winemaking process. Winemakers are fighting for the modification of the winemaking process for Pinot Nuarsa to find the optimal process to emphasize the delicate flavor and structural aspects of the class. For example, winemakers need to be very careful aging in Pinot noir with oak barrels, because the woody scents can easily overcome the fragility of the natural flavors, balanced in Pinot Noir. Parts Pinot Noir can also be mixed in such a manner that masks imperfections due to changes in the winemaking process, or weakness inherent to grapes.

When pairing wines with Pinot Noir products be sure to go easy on the spices, otherwise the delicate flavors of Pinot Noir will be masked. Salmon – this is one of the best pairs for Pinot Noir wines, so flavors are equally easy, but with the complexity that is pretty good kamplimentue otherwise.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet – a term that covers several different varieties: primarily Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon – especially popular variety, which arose from the grapes developed by crossing Cabernet Franc with Sauvignon Blanc grapes. In fact, the Cabernet Sauvignon – this is the most widely grown red grape in most wine regions of the world, and especially in the wine region of France Budo. In other parts of the world Cabernet Sauvignon is also called Petit Cabernet, Sauvignon Rouge and Vider, so it's important to remember these phrases when you are abroad.

In addition, since 1960, Cabernet Sauvignon was the most common term for varietal red wines thanks to the broad appeal and criticized. Since so many are widely demanded in wine circles, Cabernet Sauvignon is susceptible to an increase in cost due to inflation, as the demand of wealthy wine lovers are driven prices up. On the other hand, the father of the grape Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet franc is less popular because it is less desirable than its grape descendants. However, it is quite often used as a mixing element in mixed varietal wine, particularly Merlot. General advice for most novice wine consumers is that most of the spilled wine labeled Cabernet grapes belong to something & # 39; and Cabernet Sauvignon, and not to the Cabernet Franc.

Cabernet Sauvignon flourishes best in regions with long growing season because of the warm climate and reaches maturity quite late in the season. Also it grows well in arid areas with little well-drained soil. These elements allow Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to mature fruit-flavored, not more herbal flavor, which occurs due to exposure to high humidity and grapes excess nutrients in the soil during the growing process. Sam grapes relatively small with a tight outer skin that protects the grapes from many elements. They are much more resistant to disease and can be treated as fairly hardy grape varieties.

Cabernet Sauvignon also with & # 39 is one of the best aged wines. Traditionally kept in small oak barrels for eighteen months before bottling. This period of aging allows the wine to develop greater complexity and depth of flavors that it contains. Some of the flavors, which are often referred to as Cabernet Sauvignon, – a dark cherry, black currant, olive, pepper, cedar and tobacco. Cabernet Sauvignon can also sometimes be and acute or trenching flavor profiles.

Syrah – Shiraz

Currently, the Shiraz is the fifth part of all the grape vines in Australia and a & # 39 is one of the most commonly harvested grapes in the country. Despite the fact that in recent years the intense popularity of rival red Cabernet Sauvignon Shiraz was due to secondary status in the consumers of wine, many wine growers begin to revive its Shiraz new styles and aging methods.

Grape vine Shiraz has an interesting history and a place in the modern wine world. Usually their fault called the "new world", as a rule, more fruit in their preferred flavors as opposed to wine "Old World," which is often called Syrah. Since both types of wine produced from genetically the same grapes, the differences between them are minimal. Some suppliers of wines even argue that the difference between Shiraz and cheese is associated only with stylistic advantages.

However, South Africa, Canada and Australia – the three primary growth region, which is called the sort of wine like Shiraz, not cheese. These regions support a tendency to identify their exports to the classification of New World wine "Shiraz", which identifies it as an easier and more aggressively fruity style of wine.

Shiraz grapes normally used in the production of red table wines that are typical of aging well. Shiraz main difficulty often reaches taste after approximately ten to fifteen years of aging; but it can be easy to apply much earlier in the aging process, without bringing on the great taste. It is also often used as a blending wine, although it is mainly in the Spanish regions.

Shyratskiya guilt characteristic of full saturation, and palatability can be easily changed depending on the physical wine region of its production characteristics. Some of the flavors that are most often referred to Shiraz wine, with a & # 39 are: blackberries, chocolate, black pepper, plums and spices. Shiraz also has soft tannins and oak flavors varying degrees. They bloom especially in the wine regions of Australia with a cool and dry climate, which allows you to get the berries. Other grape Vinogradov Shiraz grown in warmer climates tend to cover more soft aromas of plum.

Despite the frequent association of wine from the New World Shiraz – one of the oldest known varieties of grape vine. In fact, he is called the city of the same name in Iran, where the wine may have originated thousands of years ago.


Zinfandel often gets less than stellar reputation among the whimsical wine lovers, as he recently gained a reputation as "the initial fault," especially for women, because of the sweet taste popular in the 1980s and 90s. However vinarobtsy have responded in the past few years, this prejudice against Zinfandels, improving the complexity and balance of flavors in their wines to make them more enjoyable choice for savvy wine consumers complicated feelings of flavors.

What makes the wine more attractive for wine lovers? The complexity and completeness of flavors – a few key aspects of a well-produced wine. In Zinfanfels there are a few characteristics of the most popular flavors: blackberry, raspberry, cherry, clove, black pepper and anise. However, depending on the complexity of Zinfandel, you may experience many other levels of flavors, especially through the tasting, which you carefully pay attention to the finer points issued for the entire wine experience. Another interesting characteristic of Zinfandels is that they also often confused with others such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Syrah.

Since Zinfandels Var & # 39; iruetstsa of light bodily white to rather robust reds, they are of # & 39 are strict rules on which foods pair with them. Some zinfandeli have sufficient body and the presence of fragrances, which can be drunk even with a hearty steak or a rich chocolate dessert. Lighter Muscat can be a great combination for Latin American and tropic-inspired dishes.

Zinfandel originates from well-vine Zinfandel grapes with red skin, which is used for the production of both red and white Zinfandels. Officially named in 1832, Zinfandels traditionally defined as the American variety, and can be quite difficult to find in the foreign markets. It was recently discovered that the grape is genetically identical to the Muscat grape Prymatsiva, a native of Italy. This discovery begins to explain a previously unknown Muscat grape heritage.

California wineries Zinfandels embraced as its own distinctive variety, resulting in a reputation of Zinfandel, to become representation and brand image of the Californian wine. Some of the most popular regions for the production of Zinfandels: Napa Valley, Sonoma, Mendokina-Lake, Central Valley, Bay area, peradgor & # 39; and the Sierra and Southern California. However, not one of Zinfandel & # 39 is exclusive to California, and can be made in US regions as far away as North Carolina and Tennessee, as well as in foreign place where you exported grapes Zinfandel.


Chardonnay has become the most popular white wine in America over the past few decades. The reasons for this development are varied. The first is that Chardonnay have a wide attractive taste, which often consists of fruit and rich oily notes. Thanks to the versatility of wine, it may have a plurality of distinct variations of flavors, and vineyards can even mix with other varieties Chardonnay as a way to experience new flavors in the wine mixture. One of the other most important reason for its popularity with the & # 39 is that it is widely available and can be very low due to the small winter-hardy grapes Chardonnay to many diseases and, therefore, easier to grow in many environments. Thus, the demand for Chardonnay easily filled, despite the fact that the grapes Chardonnay with a & # 39 is more fragile at the stage of development of winemaking.

Some of the key distinguishing characteristics of this well-loved white wine in that it is dry and often quite saturated with the most popular flavors and aromas, mentioned in the description Chardin – apple, melon, pear, lemon and pineapple. as well as butter, peanut, butter, vanilla, oak and citrus. Especially if Chardonnay is aged in oak barrels, it acquires delicious or oily quality and flavor of vanilla or coconut, which adds depth tasting wealth. Many types of cheap chardonnay seeking to achieve Oak taste, use steel barrels of oak chips to reduce production costs, while at the same time acquiring a similar flavor and texture in their wines.

Шардоны – адзін з самых папулярных гатункаў, якія вырошчваюць у вінаробным рэгіёне Каліфорніі, але таксама квітнеюць у Аўстраліі, Новай Зеландыі, Аргенціне, Чылі і Паўднёвай Афрыцы. У 2000 г. вінаград Шардоне складаў 40 адсоткаў усяго вінаграду белага віна, пасаджанага ў вінаробных рэгіёнах Каліфорніі, і можа квітнець ў многіх рэгіёнах з даволі адрозным характарам надвор'я. Французскія шардоны таксама лічацца надзвычай якаснымі і на самай справе ў вінаробным рэгіёне Шаблі ў Францыі вінаград Шардоне з'яўляецца адзіным дазволеным гатункам вінаграду.

Сёння Шардоны менш моцна падвяргаюцца закісанню дуба, паколькі грамадскія перавагі перайшлі на больш лёгкія і выразныя варыянты гэтага гатунку. Прычынай такой перавагі можна лічыць вяртанне з некалькіх апошніх дзесяцігоддзяў, калі ўсе шардоны былі настолькі моцна перапрацаваны малочна-малочнай ферментацыяй і іншымі спосабамі старэння, што нават самыя характэрныя шардоны пачалі губляць свае характэрныя водары.

Совіньён Блан

Совіньён Блан – гэта вельмі папулярнае ў цяперашні час белае віно. Каліфарнійскі совіньён блан таксама часам называюць Fume Blanc. Рост вінаграду Совіньён Блан займае амаль 14 000 гектараў толькі ў Каліфорніі. Совіньён Блан таксама вырошчваецца ў рэгіёнах, такіх як Паўднёвая Афрыка, Новая Зеландыя, Чылі, Італія, Францыя, Аўстралія і нават можа вырошчвацца ў дзіўных рэгіёнах, такіх як Канада і Лонг-Айленд, Нью-Ёрк.

Совіньён Блан часта разглядаецца як лепшае белае віно для многіх харчовых спалучэнняў, паколькі яго востры, агрэсіўны водар добра спалучаецца з прадуктамі. Ён асабліва добра спалучаецца з прадуктамі, якія змяшчаюць такія кампаненты, як перац, часнык, вэнджаныя сыры з кінзы і памідоры, якія звычайна цалкам адоляць нават самыя моцныя духмяныя шардоны ў дадатак да большасці іншых белых вінаў.

Совіньён Блан валодае унікальным водарам, які дазваляе лёгка распазнаць у параўнанні з іншымі белымі вінамі. Яе водары, як правіла, можна аднесці да травяністых, такіх як лімоннік, агрэст і свежа скашаная трава. Аднак ён валодае і іншымі традыцыйнымі водарамі, такімі як зялёная дыня, грэйпфрут, пассифлоры і балгарскі перац. У цэлым Совіньён Блан з'яўляецца моцным, вострым і духмяным гатункам, які пераважае над многімі іншымі белымі вінамі па інтэнсіўнасці і рэзкасці густаў.

У адрозненне ад многіх іншых гатункаў віна, Совіньён Блан часта не старэе ў дубовых бочках, таму што часта адыходзіць ад неспрыяльнага смакавага спалучэння. Аднак совіньён бланкі часта змешваюць – гэта тэхніка, якая часам супакойвае іх абразіўныя густы. Змешванне совіньёна блан з Semillon (іншы гатунак віна, які вырошчваецца ў асноўным у Францыі) з'яўляецца папулярнай практыкай, асабліва ў легендарным рэгіёне Францыі Boudreaux, бо Semillon дадае смак інжыра і змякчае агульны густ совіньёна блан. Суадносіны Semillon ў спалучэнні з Sauvignon Blanc вар'іруецца ў рэгіёне і сустракаецца ў першую чаргу ў Францыі. Аднак некаторыя версіі складаюцца з 70-адсоткавага Semillon і 30-адсоткавага Sauvignon Blanc, а іншыя разнавіднасці складаюцца з амаль зваротнага суадносін 75% Sauvignon Blanc і 15% Semillon. Гэтыя сумесі – выдатны варыянт для спажыўцоў віна, якія карыстаюцца некаторымі водарамі совіньёна бланка, але лічаць яго занадта агрэсіўным для сваіх гурманаў.

Паколькі Совіньён Блан па-ранейшаму не так папулярны ў многіх спажыўцоў віна, як яго больш папулярны стрыечны брат гатунку Шардоне, шмат якія якасці Совіньён Блан вельмі эканамічна ацэнены. У спалучэнні з яго дасканаласцю ў спалучэнні мноства складаных спалучэнняў страў, Совіньён Блан – выдатны выбар для разнавіднасцяў вячэры.


California notice of fulfillment or waiver of the covenant


California notice on the implementation of the covenant or exit – this is the theme of this article. This alternative form of the three-day California messages are also known as the three-day notice of execution or output, as well as a three-day notice of vylechenni or dismissal.

Lessor in California, who argues that the tenant is violating a substantial lease or rental contract period can start illegal zatrymalnika, also known as the eviction process, serving the tenant of this alternative form of the three-day message, known as a three-day message to perform covenant or quit.

The landlord will use this notice when he says that the tenant violates the terms of the lease and the rent, and the problem can be solved. For example, if the tenant moved with pets in the device without permission, does not support the device in a clean or violate any other contractual period, notice must ask the tenant to correct the violation within 3 days or move. .

The three-day notice of the implementation of the covenant of California or exit must meet certain requirements. The message must be in writing; you must specify the full name of the tenant or tenants; must have an address of rental property; I must specify that the tenant has done violation of the lease or rental agreement, and hold a very specific statement regarding the specific situation of breach of lease or rent, which has been infringed; you must declare that the lessee has the option to fix the problem or move after 3 days; and it must be signed by the landlord or his agent and indicate the date of the message.

California tenants who have been granted a 3-day notice on the implementation of the Covenant or failure, should carefully analyze the message to determine whether the message requirements discussed in this article.

The law in California states that, if the violation – it is non-compliance with conditions or agreements, the claimant shall state in the complaint specific conditions or covenants, neglect or failure, maintenance 3-day message that requires a possession, failure to comply within 3 days keep possession in accordance with the Civil Procedure Code, the head of one thousand one hundred sixty-one (c) (3).

The Court of Appeal of California said that a trivial breach of the conditions or the pact will not support the termination, and the tenant can raise a significant performance as fair protection from any illegal detention operations.

The author sincerely hopes that you enjoyed this article. If you like this article, please tell others about it.


Stan Burman


Land trusts in California


In California, the common law trust is in protest Code §§15000-19403. In California, there is no specific statute of the land trust, unlike the law on confidence in the land of Illinois (765 ILCS 405/410/415/420), the law of Massachusetts business trust (MBT) (MGLc182, §2) and the law on trust Virginia (Va. code, chapter 55-17.1).

Thus, land funds established in California for a property in California, based on the common law of confidence in the aforementioned California Code of fun. But the outside the state land trust that will hold the right to the owner of the trustee power can be generated in California to take advantage of more favorable status and judicial practice of other staff. Indeed, the Supreme Court of Virginia in Air Power, Inc v. Thompson, 244 Va. 534, 422 SE 2nd 786 (1992), confirmed that the Code Va. 55-17.1 gives the trustee of the land trust as a legitimate, fair and real estate property, protects the privacy of the recipients.

Indeed, as in California, there is no specific statute of the land trust, in this state no legislative history nor developed jurisprudence, only California general trust and judicial law. But the general law of confidence may have some advantages over the specific charter of confidence to the ground with large requirements. Indeed, the status of Illinois land trust (75 ILCS 435) requires that the owners of the leadership responsibilities are required to entrust the duties beneficial owner interests. California common law trust has no such requirements.

In any case, avoid probate of real estate in the land trust prevents all the difficulties in creating it.

I. General Law on confidence in California:

A. Building trust:

California Prabat § 15000 provides that "(t) his unit (section 9 Kabatavoga Code) must be known and may be referred to the law on the road." And § 15001 (a) states that "(e) xcept, otherwise provided by statute: This section applies to all trusts, regardless of which were created before, after or after July 1, 1987".

Among other methods of building trust, a trust can be created: "(b) (a) transfer of the property owner over the life of the owner to another person as trustee" under § 15200 (b) California Entertainment code. And "trust is created only when there is trust" under § 15202.

"Trust can be created for any purpose that is not from the & # 39 is illegal or against public policy," under paragraph 15203. The land trust is not of & # 39 is unlawful purpose and not against public policy in California, although in this state it is not widely used.

And "trust but charitable trust is created only if there is the exempt" in accordance with paragraph 15205.

B. Confidence in real estate and personal property:

In order not to violate the Charter of fraud, which requires that a written document was enforceable, §15206 states that "the trust relating to real estate is not valid unless it is confirmed by one of the following methods: (b) a written document of trust transfer properly signed by settlers or agent of the settlers, if permitted in writing. "

And in accordance with paragraph (a) of this paragraph 15207, "(t) his existence and terms of an oral trust personal property can be set only by clear and convincing evidence." In accordance with paragraph 1528 of the "consideration is not required to create trust …"

And finally, "the trust established in accordance with this Chapter (1 part 2, section 9 Prabandskaga Code), which deals with real estate, can be recorded in the office of count recorder in the county where the whole or part of the property is under n. 15210.

II. Mechanics land trust:

A. The advantages and benefits:

(1) Confidentiality:

One of the most popular benefits of a land trust is that the grant of power of attorney trust in the name of another trustee (private or institutional) can be recorded with the county recorder, but an agreement on the land trust, which indicates the name of the trustee / settler / investor and the recipient is not recorded.

Thus, the creator / the recipient of a land trust: Trust / settler who invests in real estate may keep your name and the names of the beneficiaries, are not included in district and county recorder assistant and Books # 39, and to some extent concealed from public investment look.

However, the judgment creditor Trust / settler or beneficiary can subdue the last written examination on his / her assets, either to the debtor's oath in court to determine the assets, and not just rely on search District assets and registrar.

An agreement on land management can also use the title to land, which is different from the name of the landowner / settler who created it. This is another benefit for asset protection. If the beneficiary of this with a & # 39 is also the same trastor / settler, he can assign it a living trust or a limited liability company wholly owned by, hoping to avoid the tax.

(2) avoidance of the ban:

Moreover, just as successor trustees may be appointed in the contract for the land trust can also be selected by the beneficiary, the successors to avoid disturbances in the distribution of the trust assets at the termination of the trust, outside the trial.

The land trust can be created as a check (terms of the agreement are subject to change) or irreversible (can not be changed), but the latter requires the filing of individual tax returns and are taxed at a higher rate than trastor / settler and # 39; s individual tax rate, except for the simple trust in which all income is taxed by benefits. As regards the impact of federal income tax if grantadavets / trastar also & # 39 is the beneficiary, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) classifies it as a trust subsidenta, which has tax implications, which go directly to the Form 1040 and the declaration of the state trusts.

(B) Disadvantages and pitfalls:

(1) share agreement for each property:

In order to maintain confidentiality of investments or transactions and the protection of the land trust's assets benefits can be transferred to only one property stored in it. Thus, for each property creates a different agreement on the ground. It can be cumbersome, although in each agreement may be given the same trastar / settler, the trustee and the beneficiary.

(A) is a simpler alternative:

Simpler alternatives to the & # 39 are the acquisition of the investment or rental property through a limited liability company (LP) or a limited liability company (LLC) or the transfer of these properties to a more flexible living trust, which requires filing separate tax returns or transfer of ownership the interests of the company (not the property name) on the living trust.

Ltd. can also create a land trust, custody transfer the right of ownership and assign yourself (LLC) as the recipient of Privacy property. Sometimes less is more; in fact, creditors can see and handle the request to avoid the execution of court decisions on property assets through the protection circuit. And the transfer of ownership of property can result in a tax assessment.